The building was located at the eastern outskirts of Glck. It had 6 stories above foundation level, with a layout of 4 by 6 bays in the longitudinal and transverse directions respectively. It was approximately 18 m in height, 19.4 m in length and 23.2 m i...

Prepared By: Miguel Robles
Occupancy: Residential
Year Built:
Height: 18 m
Number of stories: 6
Stories below ground: 0
Size: 2700 sqm
Original Code:
Modification: Unknown
Year Modified:
Code of Modification:
Lateral Load System: MomentFrame
Other Load System:
Vertical Load System: Slabl_Beams_Columns
Other Vertical Load System:
Foundation : Unknown
Other Foundation :
Country: Turkey
State: Kocaeli
City: Glck
Latitude: 40.7
Longitude: 29.85


Ilgi Moble Building

Earthquake Information



Earthquake Date 36389
Moment Magnitude 7.6
Epicentral Distance 4.85
Local Intensity IX MMI
Site Description Adapazari is located on an alluvial plain approximately 30 m above the sea level. It is understood that large part of the city has been built on reclaimed land formed over a swamp. The plain is underlain by Quaternary Age alluvial deposits consisting of alternating layers of gravel, sand, silt and clay deposited by the Sakarya and Mudurnu rivers. The ground water level is typically very shallow and varies between 0.5 m and 3.0 m below ground level. (EEFIT, 2003)
PGA Lateral 0.41 (g)
PGA Vertical 0.26 (g)
Ground motion recording stations SKR - Turkish National Strong Motion Network station, Adapazari.
Distance to station None
Station Latitude 40.737
Station Longitude 30.384
Ground Motion Summary The earthquake occurred in western Turkey. The Anatolian Block is compressed by African and Arabian Plates from the south and Eurasian Plate from the north. This compression is responsible for complex deformation of the North Anatolian Fault Zone that causes major earthquakes along the fault. The epicenter of this earthquake (40.75N, 29.86E) was located 11 km southeast of the city of Izmit with a focal depth of 17.0 km. Initial field observations indicate that the earthquake produced at least 60 km of surface rupture and right-lateral offsets as large as 2.7 m. The strong motion instrument located in Adapazari recorded peak ground accelerations of 0.41g horizontal and 0.26g vertical.


Damage Information



Performance summary

Structural damage was concentrated in the first-story columns at the front of the building and around the stairwell at the rear of the building. Although several columns in the first story failed in shear and axial compression, the building did not collapse. After the columns in the first row failed in shear and shortened, the slab and beam framing deflected in the shape of a catenary, and gravity loads were carried to the adjacent undamaged columns by axial tension in the beams and slabs. Vierendeel truss action in the upper stories also likely transferred gravity loads to adjacent undamaged columns. (Sezen et al., 2000).

Damage state description

Many of the columns in the first story were severely damaged or failed in shear and/or axial compression. The columns supporting the staircases failed in shear right above the landings. Spalling concrete and shear failures were observed at several beam-column joints. The slabs presented excessive deflections and loss of it's infill was observed in the vicinity of a column. The infill masonry walls were severely damaged in the first five stories but remained almost intact at the top story.

Summary of causes of damage

1. Non-ductile detailing was evident in each damaged component. 2. Widely spaced perimeter transverse ties with 90 hooks with no cross ties, and lap splices located at the floor level with no confining transverse reinforcement. 3. There was no transverse reinforcement in the beam-column joints. 4. The lateral support provided by the landings of the staircases resulted in short column effect and led to shear failures above the landings. 5. No transverse reinforcement was present in the staircase-column joints. (Sezen et al., 2000).

Observed Design and Construction Characteristics


Construction Quality

MaterialsNotesContribution to Damage
Reinforcing steel Smooth bars used for the transverse reinforcement

ExecutionNotesContribution to Damage
Conveyance/placement of concrete
Rebar Widely spaced perimeter ties, 90 hooks, no cross ties
Field variance with design documents
OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Construction Quality Lap splices located at the floor level with no confining transverse reinforcement


Plan IrregularitiesNotesContribution to Damage
Perimeter boundary
Out-of-plane offsets in lateral resisting system
Non-orthogonal systems

Vertical IrregularitiesNotesContribution to Damage
Soft story
Weak story
Geometric variablility of lateral resisting system
In-plane discontinuity of lateral resisting system
Mass distribution
Change in stiffness

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Configuration

Lateral Load Resisting System‐General

StrengthNotesContribution to Damage
Overall lack of strength

StiffnessNotesContribution to Damage
Extreme Flexibility

Load PathNotesContribution to Damage
Anchorage of nonstructural elements
Out-of-plane capacity of walls
Diaphragm chords
Diaphragm openings

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-General

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Frames

ColumnsNotesContribution to Damage
Shear strength
Flexural strength Lap splices located at the floor level with no confining transverse reinforcement
Axial load ratio
Vertical load columns drift capacity
Interference of frame action by infill

BeamsNotesContribution to Damage
Strength relative to columns
Shear controlled behavior
Continuity of longitudinal reinforcing
Loss of vertical capacity
Interference of frame action by infill beams

JointsNotesContribution to Damage
Interior No transverse reinforcement
Exterior No transverse reinforcement
Corner No transverse reinforcement

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-Frames

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Shear Walls

ShearNotesContribution to Damage
Diagonal tension/compression
Sliding Shear

FlexureNotesContribution to Damage
Compression zone buckling capacity
Discontinuity of wall
Boundary reinforcing fracture/buckling
Boundary Reinforcing at openings

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-Shear Walls

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Infills

InfillsNotesContribution to Damage
Interference with frame action
Out of plane
Attachment to framing

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Infills

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Other

FoundationsNotesContribution to Damage
Surface Rupture

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Pile/Pier tension capacity

MiscellaneousNotesContribution to Damage
Spread footing capacity
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Other-Foundations

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Other-Misc

Repair and Retrofit Information


Type of Retrofit or Repair

None (demolished/abandoned)

Other Retrofit or Repair

Performance Level


Hazard Level


Retrofit or Repair Code


Other Retrofit or Repair Code

Lateral Analysis


Other Lateral Analysis

Design Strategy

Retrofit Summary

Sezen, H. et al., 2000. "Reinforced Concrete Frame and Wall Buildings". Structural Engineering Reconnaissance of the August 17, 1999 Earthquake: Kocaeli (Izmit) Turkey, Chapter 3. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), Report 2000/09.
Mark Aschheim, Polat Glkan, Halil Sezen, Michel Bruneau, Amr Elnashai, Marvin Halling, Jay Love, and Mohsen Rahnama (2000) Performance of Buildings. Earthquake Spectra: December 2000, Vol. 16, No. S1, pp. 237-279.
Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT), 2003. "The Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake of 17 August 1999". Field report by EEFIT, London, UK.
Bayhan, B., 2010. "Buildings under recurring near-field earthquakes". Ph.D. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. (page 63)

United States Geological Survey (USGS). "Magnitude 7.6 TURKEY, 1999 August 17 00:01:39 UTC". Historic Earthquakes, 2012.

United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2008. "USGS ShakeMap: Kocaeli, Turkey". ShakeMap Atlas, 2012. "Asmolen Dseme Imalati". Staj Resimleri Galerisi.