Each of these buildings is a structure of a three-structure complex that conforms to the plans for a typical high school building commonly used by the Ministry of Education of Turkey. Each building is a four-story structure. The total column area was 1.5 ...

Prepared By: Miguel Robles
Occupancy: Education
Year Built:
Height: 14 m
Number of stories: 4
Stories below ground: unknown
Size: 2092 sqm
Original Code:
Modification: Unknown
Year Modified:
Code of Modification:
Lateral Load System: MomentFrame
Other Load System:
Vertical Load System: Slabl_Beams_Columns
Other Vertical Load System:
Foundation : Other
Other Foundation : Foundation-basement
Country: Turkey
State: Bingol
City: Bingol
Street: Kltr Cd 29-31, Inn Mh., 12000
Latitude: 38.885644
Longitude: 40.505278


Turkey School bldgs - Dual System

Earthquake Information



Earthquake Date 37742
Moment Magnitude 6.4
Epicentral Distance 14
Local Intensity VIII MMI
Site Description The soils in this alluvial terrace were constituted by a layer of medium stiff brown sandy silt or clay, approximately 1 to 1.5 m thick; below, at a level close to river there was a layer of gravels, seemingly ranging from dense to very dense. (Ozcebe et al., 2003).
PGA Lateral 0.56 (g)
PGA Vertical 0.47 (g)
Ground motion recording stations MPWR Building, Bingl
Distance to station 1.3
Station Latitude 38.897
Station Longitude 40.503
Ground Motion Summary The earthquake occurred in eastern Turkey. The tectonic of the region are controlled by the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates causing lateral escape of the Anatolian block to the west and the Northeast Anatolian block to the east. The Anatolian block is bounded to the north and to the southeast by the North Anatolian and the East Anatolian strike-slip faults, respectively. The epicenter of this earthquake (39.00N, 40.46E) was located 15 km N-NW of Bingol city with a focal depth of 10.0 km. The strong motion instrument located in Bingol records peak ground accelerations of 0.56g north-south, 0.28g east-west and 0.47g vertical. (EERI, 2003).


Damage Information



Performance summary

The structural system suffered heavy damage. Although the shear walls were heavily damaged, their presence prevented the total collapse of the building. Also, there are diagonal shear cracks in the nonstructural members which suffered light damage. (Ozcebe et al., 2003).

Damage state description

Damage to the structural system is confined to significant crushing of concrete in the shear walls. There was no damage observed in the columns and a few beams had severe flexural cracks. The masonry walls were separated from the structural frame because of crushing of the bricks at the edge of the walls. There was no partial or full collapse of the masonry walls. (Ozcebe et al., 2003).

Summary of causes of damage

1. The diagonal shear crack and crushing of the concrete core in a shear wall was due to a combination of inferior material quality and inadequate transverse reinforcement. 2. Low quality concrete and use of smooth bars contributed to the overall lack of strength. 3. Interference of infill walls with the lateral load system allowed severe damage and failure of nonstructural walls. 4. Use of smooth bars allowed formation of wide concentrated cracks in beams.

Observed Design and Construction Characteristics


Construction Quality

MaterialsNotesContribution to Damage
Concrete Size of aggregate
Reinforcing steel Smooth bars

ExecutionNotesContribution to Damage
Conveyance/placement of concrete
Field variance with design documents
OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Construction Quality


Plan IrregularitiesNotesContribution to Damage
Torsion Unintended eccentricity due to infill walls
Perimeter boundary
Out-of-plane offsets in lateral resisting system
Non-orthogonal systems

Vertical IrregularitiesNotesContribution to Damage
Soft story
Weak story
Geometric variablility of lateral resisting system
In-plane discontinuity of lateral resisting system
Mass distribution
Change in stiffness

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Configuration

Lateral Load Resisting System‐General

StrengthNotesContribution to Damage
Overall lack of strength

StiffnessNotesContribution to Damage
Extreme Flexibility

Load PathNotesContribution to Damage
Anchorage of nonstructural elements
Out-of-plane capacity of walls
Diaphragm chords
Diaphragm openings

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-General

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Frames

ColumnsNotesContribution to Damage
Shear strength
Flexural strength
Axial load ratio
Vertical load columns drift capacity
Interference of frame action by infill

BeamsNotesContribution to Damage
Strength relative to columns
Shear controlled behavior
Continuity of longitudinal reinforcing
Loss of vertical capacity
Interference of frame action by infill beams

JointsNotesContribution to Damage

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-Frames

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Shear Walls

ShearNotesContribution to Damage
Diagonal tension/compression
Sliding Shear

FlexureNotesContribution to Damage
Compression zone buckling capacity
Discontinuity of wall
Boundary reinforcing fracture/buckling
Boundary Reinforcing at openings

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-Shear Walls

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Infills

InfillsNotesContribution to Damage
Interference with frame action
Out of plane
Attachment to framing

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Infills

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Other

FoundationsNotesContribution to Damage
Surface Rupture

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Pile/Pier tension capacity

MiscellaneousNotesContribution to Damage
Spread footing capacity
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Other-Foundations

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Other-Misc

Repair and Retrofit Information


Type of Retrofit or Repair


Other Retrofit or Repair

Performance Level


Hazard Level


Retrofit or Repair Code


Other Retrofit or Repair Code

Lateral Analysis


Other Lateral Analysis

Design Strategy

Retrofit Summary



zcebe, G. et al., 2003. "1 May 2003 Bingl Earthquake Engineering Report". National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK).

Gur, T., et al., 2009. Performance of Schools Buildings in Turkey During the 1999 Dzce and the 2003 Bingl earthquakes. Earthquake Spectra 25, pp. 239-256.

Irfanoglu, A., 2009. Performance of Template School Buildings during Earthquakes in Turkey and Peru. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, ASCE, 2009.

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI), 2003. "Preliminary Observations on the May 1, 2003, Bingl, Turkey, Earthquake". Learning from Earthquakes, EERI Special Earthquake Report.

Erdik, M. et al. May 01, 2003. "Bingol (Turkey) Earthquake". Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Bayhan, B., 2010. "Buildings under recurring near-field earthquakes". Ph.D. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. (page 63)

AnatolianQuake.org. Bingol DATA 1, C-14-08. http://anatolianquake.org/

United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2008. "USGS ShakeMap: Bingol, Turkey". ShakeMap Atlas, 2012. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/shakemap/atlas/shake/200305010027/

"Turkey". 39.00 N and 40.51 E. Google Earth/USGS, 2012.