The building is the main part of a typical branch office of the MPWR, a five-building complex designed in the 1970's and constructed in the 1980s. There are four service buildings in addition to the main building. All buildings are separated by 50 mm by s...

Prepared By: Miguel Robles
Occupancy: PublicGovernment
Year Built: 1980
Height: 16.6 m
Number of stories: 5
Stories below ground: 0
Size: 1300 sqm
Original Code: 1975 Turkish (TEC 1975)
Modification: none
Year Modified: N/A
Code of Modification: N/A
Lateral Load System: MomentFrame
Other Load System:
Vertical Load System: Two-way slab and beams with columns
Other Vertical Load System:
Foundation : Mat
Other Foundation :
Country: Turkey
State: Erzincan
City: Erzincan
Street: Fevzi Pasa Caddesi (Halit Pasa Cd.) and 829. Sk, Izzetpasa Mh., 24000
Latitude: 39.742153
Longitude: 39.511764


 

MPWR - Erzincan

Earthquake Information

 

 

Earthquake Date 33676
Moment Magnitude 6.7
Epicentral Distance 12.7
Local Intensity VIII MMI
Site Description "The building was located at 2.3 km east of the record station and was constructed on Soil (Kalkan and Glkan 2004) that is similar to that of the station." (Bayhan, 2010).
PGA Lateral 0.49 (g)
PGA Vertical 0.25 (g)
SaT
Ground motion recording stations Meteorology Building, Erzincan
Distance to station 2.3
Station Latitude 39.752
Station Longitude 39.487
Ground Motion Summary The earthquake occurred in eastern Turkey along the right-lateral, strike-slip North Anatolian fault. This fault strikes about N60W in this segment and is generally accepted as the northern boundary of the Turkish plate, which is being ejected westward between the Eurasian plate to the north and the Afro-Arabian plate to the south. The epicenter of this earthquake (39.73N, 39.65E) was located 7.7 km SE of the center of Erzincan city with a focal depth of 27.2 km. Evidence of surface deformation was observed over a distance of 55-60 km. The strong motion instrument located in Erzincan records peak ground accelerations of 0.41g north-south, 0.49g east-west and 0.25g vertical. The duration of the strong shaking only lasted approximately 5 to 6 seconds, with long half-cycle pulses of durations approaching 0.75-1.00 seconds near the start of the record. (EERI, 1993).

 

Damage Information

 

 

Performance summary

There was light damage in the building, thus, it was judged to be in the immediate occupancy level. After the earthquake, minor cracks in the building were repaired and covered with plaster. It continued to serve the public immediately after the 1992 earthquake and was retrofited in 2004. (Bayhan, 2010).

Damage state description

There was light damage in the building and consisted of minor hairline cracks in the ground and first story L-shaped corner columns. Hairline cracks in the ground and first story beams were observed. Minor shear cracks were noticed in first story masonry infill walls. Hairline cracks in the beams and infill walls and L-shaped corner columns at the window level were observed in the upper stories. The most significant damage that occurred in the building was the minor shear cracks observed in one of the first story edge columns. (Bayhan, 2010).

Summary of causes of damage

1. Lack of seismic design calculation: The 1975 seismic code did not have some of the features that the later versions did, but the principal culprit here was the captive columns facing the inner courtyard. They failed, leading to unsymmetrical drifts on one face of the building that no intervention could correct. 2. The presence of in-fill walls attached to the frames created captive columns and allowed damaged to the walls. 3. Smooth bars and constructions practices permitted formation of large cracks in the columns. 4. Inadequate seismic joints allowed pounding between adjacent buildings.

Observed Design and Construction Characteristics

 

Construction Quality

MaterialsNotesContribution to Damage
Concrete As-built concrete strength (9 MPa) lower than specified (14 MPa).
Reinforcing steel Smooth bars

ExecutionNotesContribution to Damage
Conveyance/placement of concrete
Rebar
Field variance with design documents
OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Construction Quality Inadequate confinement and lateral reinforcement

Configuration

Plan IrregularitiesNotesContribution to Damage
Torsion
Perimeter boundary Reentrant corner at L-shaped columns
Diaphragm
Out-of-plane offsets in lateral resisting system
Non-orthogonal systems

Vertical IrregularitiesNotesContribution to Damage
Soft story
Weak story
Geometric variablility of lateral resisting system
In-plane discontinuity of lateral resisting system
Mass distribution
Setback
Change in stiffness Except for the L-shaped corner columns, sizes and longitudinal reinforcement in these members decrease progressively from lower to the upper stories. (Bayhan, 2011).

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Configuration Beams framing perpendicularly to L-shaped column flanges

Lateral Load Resisting System‐General

StrengthNotesContribution to Damage
Overall lack of strength

StiffnessNotesContribution to Damage
Extreme Flexibility

Load PathNotesContribution to Damage
Collectors/Struts
Anchorage of nonstructural elements
Out-of-plane capacity of walls
Diaphragm chords
Diaphragm openings

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-General Design level surpassed

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Frames

ColumnsNotesContribution to Damage
Shear strength
Flexural strength
Axial load ratio
Vertical load columns drift capacity
Interference of frame action by infill

BeamsNotesContribution to Damage
Strength relative to columns
Shear controlled behavior
Continuity of longitudinal reinforcing
Loss of vertical capacity
Interference of frame action by infill beams

JointsNotesContribution to Damage
Interior
Exterior
Corner

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-Frames

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Shear Walls

ShearNotesContribution to Damage
Diagonal tension/compression
Sliding Shear
Flexure/shear

FlexureNotesContribution to Damage
Compression zone buckling capacity
Discontinuity of wall
Boundary reinforcing fracture/buckling
Boundary Reinforcing at openings

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting System-Shear Walls

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Infills

InfillsNotesContribution to Damage
Unreinforced
Interference with frame action
Out of plane
Attachment to framing

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Infills Unintentional short column due to hollow bricks

Lateral Load Resisting System‐Other

FoundationsNotesContribution to Damage
Liquefaction
Pounding
Surface Rupture

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Pile/Pier tension capacity

MiscellaneousNotesContribution to Damage
Spread footing capacity
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Other-Foundations

OtherNotesContribution to Damage
Other Factors Lateral Load Resisting Systems-Other-Misc

Repair and Retrofit Information

 

 

Type of Retrofit or Repair

Improved Performance

Other Retrofit or Repair

cosmetic

Performance Level

Life safety

Hazard Level

250 yr.

Retrofit or Repair Code

None

Other Retrofit or Repair Code

No Turkish code was available for "retrofit" in 2004

Lateral Analysis

Equivalent lateral force

Other Lateral Analysis

Design Strategy

Retrofit Summary

Shear walls were added at the exterior frame, jacketed 300 mm column to 600 mm at ground floor and 450 mm at upper floors, cracks were covered with plaster.

References

 

http://db.concretecoalition.org/static/data/6-references/TURK001_Reference_01.pdf
Bayhan, B., 2010. "Buildings under recurring near-field earthquakes". Ph.D. Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.


http://earthquakespectra.org/doi/abs/10.1193/1.3607987
Bayhan, B., and Glkan, P., 2011. "Buildings Subjected to Recurring Earthquakes: A Tale of Three Cities". Earthquake Spectra27, pp. 635-659.


http://db.concretecoalition.org/static/data/6-references/TURK001_Reference_02.pdf
Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT), 1992. "The Erzincan, Turkey Earthquake of 13 March 1992". Field report by EEFIT, London, UK.


http://eqs.eeri.org/resource/1/easpef/v9/iS1
Eartquake Engineering Research Instiute (EERI), 1993. "Erzincan, Turkey, Earthquake of March 13, 1992: Reconnaissance Report". Earthquake Spectra, Vol.9, no. S1 (July 1993), pp. 1-41.


United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2008. "USGS ShakeMap: Erzincan, Turkey". ShakeMap Atlas (Accessed: 2012)


"Turkey". 39.71 N and 39.50 E. Google Earth/USGS, 2012.